MALE INFERTILITY -ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW

Infertility is the inability to conceive a child even though one have had frequent(thrice a week), unprotected sexual intercourse for a year or longer.

Male infertility can be caused by low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm,injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices etc.

Symptoms
.Problems with sexual function e.g difficulty with ejaculation or small volumes of fluid ejaculated, reduced sexual desire, or difficulty maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction)

.Pain, swelling or a lump in the testicle area

.Recurrent respiratory infections

.Inability to smell

.Abnormal breast growth (gynecomastia)

.Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality

.A lower than normal sperm count (fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or a total sperm count of less than 39 million per ejaculate)

Environmental causes
.Industrial chemicals Extended exposure to certain chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, organic solvents and painting materials may contribute to low sperm counts.

.Heavy metal
Exposure to lead or other heavy metals also may cause infertility.

.Radiation or X-rays
Exposure to radiation can reduce sperm production.

.Overheating the testicles.
Elevated temperatures may impair sperm production and function. Although studies are limited and are inconclusive, frequent use of saunas or hot tubs may temporarily impair your sperm count.
Sitting for long periods, wearing tight clothing or working on a laptop computer for long stretches of time also may increase the temperature in your scrotum and may slightly reduce sperm production. But, the research isn’t conclusive.

Health, lifestyle and other causes
.Drug use
Anabolic steroids taken to stimulate muscle strength and growth can cause the testicles to shrink and sperm production to decrease. Use of cocaine or marijuana may temporarily reduce the number and quality of your sperm as well.

.Alcohol use
Drinking alcohol can lower testosterone levels, cause erectile dysfunction and decrease sperm production. Liver disease caused by excessive drinking also may lead to fertility problems.

.Tobacco smoking
Men who smoke may have a lower sperm count. Secondhand smoke also may affect male fertility.

.Weight
Obesity can impair fertility in several ways, including directly impacting sperm themselves as well as by causing hormone changes that reduce male fertility.

Prevention
.Don’t smoke.
.Limit or abstain from alcohol.
.Avoid illicit drugs.
.Maintain a healthy weight.
.Avoid things that lead to prolonged heat for the testicles.
.Try to reduce stress.
.Avoid exposure to pesticides, heavy metals and other toxins.

Diagnosis
.General physical examination and medical history
This includes asking you relevant questions & examining your genitals.

.Semen analysis
Your semen is collected & the laboratory measures the number of sperm present and checks for any abnormalities in the shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm. The lab will also check your semen for signs of problems such as infections.

Additional tests might include

Scrotal ultrasound
Can be used to identify a varicocele or other problems in the testicles and supporting structures.

.Transrectal ultrasound
Checks your prostate and look for blockages of the tubes that carry semen.

.Testosterone
Hormones produced by the testicles play a key role in sperm production,hence the need to check for the testosterone.

.Post-ejaculation urinalysis
Sperm in your urine can indicate your sperm are traveling backward into the bladder instead of out your penis during ejaculation (retrograde ejaculation).

Genetic tests
When sperm concentration is extremely low, there could be a genetic cause. A blood test can reveal whether there are subtle changes in the Y chromosome — signs of a genetic abnormality.

Treatment
In cases of infertility, it’s recommended that the female partner also be checked. There may be specific treatments recommended for your partner.

.Surgery
A varicocele can often be surgically corrected or an obstructed vas deferens repaired. In cases where no sperm are present in the ejaculate, sperm can often be retrieved directly from the testicles or epididymis using sperm retrieval techniques.

.Antibiotic therapy
This might cure an infection of the reproductive tract, but doesn’t always restore fertility.

.Treatments for sexual intercourse problems
Medication or counseling can help improve fertility in conditions such as erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.

Hormone treatments and medications
Hormone replacement or medications might be recommended in cases where infertility is caused by high or low levels of certain hormones or problems with the way the body uses hormones.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART)
This involves obtaining sperm through normal ejaculation, surgical extraction or from donor individuals, depending on your specific case and wishes. The sperm are then inserted into the female genital tract, or used to perform in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

Lifestyle and home remedies
.Increase frequency of sex
Having sexual intercourse every day or every other day beginning at least five days before ovulation increases your chances of getting your partner pregnant.

Have sex when fertilization is possible
A woman is likely to become pregnant during ovulation — which occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle, between periods. This will ensure that sperm, which can live several days, are present when conception is possible.

Avoid the use of lubricants
Products such as Astroglide or K-Y jelly, lotions, and saliva might impair sperm movement and function. Use sperm-safe lubricants

Live a healthy lifestyle
Eat a variety of healthy foods, maintain a healthy weight, get enough sleep, and exercise regularly.

Avoid things that damage your overall health
Stop or reduce your use of alcohol, quit smoking, and don’t use illicit drugs.

At e-clinic & Diagnostic Ltd, we are equipped with a fully automated Laboratory(for all kinds of Laboratory investigations and Radiology services. We are accessible at all times(24hours service/online booking), affordable with a good turn around time for all your results.

Visit us today @ #3 Agadez Street,by Aminu Kano Crescent,Wuse II,FCT,Abuja
To book for an appointment and for further enquiries,call
+2347010002008,+234908 750 3497
email: info@eclinic.ng

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