Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a term used to describe more than 20 different infections that are transmitted through the exchange of semen, blood, and other body fluids; or by direct contact with the affected body areas of people with STDs. Sexually transmitted diseases are also called venereal diseases. Young women are most at risk of developing STDs. Almost all STDs exhibit no or similar symptoms, rendering clinical diagnosis difficult and unreliable in most cases. In recent years, however, the advancement in diagnostic testing has been tremendous, especially at the molecular level of disease. As such, laboratory investigations are key to the definitive diagnosis of STDs.”

What are the symptoms of STDs?

  • Burning sensation in the urethra or pain when urinating
  • Sores, bumps, rashes, warts or blisters in the genital or anal area
  • Itching, pain, redness or swelling in the genital area
  • Abnormal discharge from the vagina or penis
  • Pain in the pelvic or abdominal area
  • Pain, soreness or discomfort during intercourse, or bleeding after intercourse
  • Persistent vaginal yeast infections
  • Yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice)

What Can You Do to Prevent STDs?

  • If you are a sexually active person, have regular checkups for STDs
  • Have a sexual relationship with one uninfected partner
  • Correctly and consistently use a male condom
  • Avoid having sexual intercourse during menstruation
  • Avoid anal intercourse, or use a male condom
  • Delay having sexual relations as long as possible. The younger people are when having sex for the first time, the more susceptible they become to developing an STD. The risk of acquiring an STD also increases with the number of partners over a lifetime
  • As a parent or teacher, educate teenagers on safe sexual behaviours

What should you do if diagnosed with STDs?

  • Be treated to reduce the risk of transmitting an STD to another person
  • If breastfeeding, discuss with a doctor the possible risk of transmission in breast milk and whether commercial formula should be substituted.
  • Notify all recent sex partners and urge them to get a checkup
  • Follow the doctor’s orders and complete the full course of medication prescribed. Follow-up with a test to ensure that the infection has been cured
  • Avoid all sexual activity while being treated for an STD

What tests can be performed to diagnose STDs?

Causing agents                             Laboratory investigations

Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) Non-treponemal tests:

·         Venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL)

·         Rapid plasma reagin test (RPR)

Treponemal-specific tests:

·         Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test(TP-HA)

·         Syphilis specific IgM


Immunodeficiency Virus-HIV I & II antibody tests

HIV Ab&Ag (Combo test)

CD4 count, CD4%, CD 8+count, S. Immunoglobulins


Genital herpes (Herpes simplex virus II) ·         HSVI & II DNA by PCR

·         HSV I & II IgG and IgM




·         HPV genotyping by PCR

·         For women: cervical Pap smear test



·         Chlamydia trachomatis IgG & IgM antibodies

·         Chlamydia trachomatis direct antigen

·         Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR

Neisseria gonorrhoea Direct smear (gram stain), gonorrhoea DNA by PCR Neisseria gonorrhoea cultures

vaginalis Urine


Trichomonas vaginalis wet mount


All tests for hepatitis are done at E-clinic and diagnostics and the best part is HEPATITIS B VACCINATION IS AVAILABLE at our facility.

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No 3 Agadez Street off Aminu Kano crescent wuse 2 Abuja.